The real stories of one and the other are very different, the Soviet was a middle – aged man, who mastered 10 languages, fond of mathematics and painter fine, educated and experienced in the vicissitudes of Intelligence brush, the young American pilot spy planes U-2, who appears in the film version as if he performed his first operation, was killed on Soviet territory on May 1, 1960, the very day they should meet in Vienna, Austria, President Eisenhower and Premier Khrushchev for negotiations on detente and eventual disarmament of the blocks headed both countries.
The main character in the film who plays Hank’s lawyer James Donovan, who had been a companion of Allen Dulles, then head of the CIA, in the years of World War II in the Office of Strategic Services OSS, the first formation of intelligence North American. Then he joined the team of his country in the Nuremberg trial, where the then allies judged the leaders of Nazism and later, without losing its ties with the fledgling CIA, was dedicated to the practice of law. Years later he was appointed attorney Kennedy to negotiate the exchange of Pigs mercenaries for baby food and agricultural implements already blocking sufrimos- which still made inaccessible to our people. In 1963 the CIA through him tried to get a diving suit poisoned gifting it to Fidel Castro, to which Donovan refused, and a few months later served as introducer journalist Lisa Howard for an interview to the Cuban leader, in which hurgaría on alternatives to the normalization of relations between thetwo countries.
However, the aim of this article is not explained, or even omissions or misrepresentations of the film, but the causes for which he was captured the pilot Powers precisely the day when American and Soviet leaders tried to negotiate seeking a possible detente the Cold War.
In December 1959 , the ex – Marine Lee Harvey Oswald, who was later accused of being the lone murderer of President John F. Kennedy, had deserted bizarre way in the USSR. There, after an ostentatious renounces his citizenship at the American embassy and attempted suicide in the hotel where he was staying, Oswald earned his residence in the city of Minsk, Belarus, where he lived for nearly three years, he married a Soviet citizens young and had a child.
Who was Oswald, and why defected ?, a question so far unanswered. He had joined the Marines in 1958 for military service and his service as studied Russian in school anguages Monterey, California. Later he was transferred to the Naval Air Station Atsugi, Japan, specializing in the operation of radars directed the flights of U-2 aircraft by Soviet and Chinese territories for the purpose of photographing gun emplacements and military camps. This base was in charge of the CIA. Its activity so familiarized with the flight parameters of said aircraft and allowed him to perfect the Russian language. According to some American researchers during their stay in Japan, Oswald was related to the attempted recruitment by the CIA in the military attache of the Soviet Embassy in Tokyo in thecompany of another agent.
After fulfilling the assigned work period in Japan, Oswald returned to the United States, to be featured on the Base of El Toro in California, where one night we went to visit the famous CIA agent Gerry Patrick Hemming, who in that year, 1959, Cuba had been spying on the emerging Revolutionary Air Force, and together with his colleague Frank Sturgis was involved in a failed attack on Fidel Castro.
The truth is, according to US official investigations, the month after the visit received, Lee Harvey Oswald asked licensing citing health problems of his mother, who lives in New Orleans, which obtained, and after a fleeting passage by that city, went by boat to England, where he went by plane to Finland, moving the next day by train to Soviet territory. All in record time, something unusual for a tourist. The Soviets interrogated and knew his background, as recognized when after JFK crime against the Americans asked them information.
Oswald was carrying vital information for the strategic defense of the Soviet armed forces, and it consisted of the parameters of flights of U-2 aircraft until then unbeatable by anti – aircraft rocket. The terms by which he was granted asylum, which of course were not related by their sayings convinced Marxist Leninist never clarified. Usual in cases where there is no history or mediating political persecution that was returned by the same border that had penetrated, but the opposite happened. In very short time, about 30 days, he obtained a residence permit in the Belarusian capital and a job in an electronics factory.Oswald probably gave sensitive information to the Soviets to ensure its status as an asylee.
Another element to consider in the analysis of this case follows from the fact that from December 1959 to May 1, 1960 , the U-2 Americans did not fly through the territory of the USSR and it is precisely that day, at a crucial time that Eisenhower and Khrushchev met in finding a way to alleviate the rigors of the cold War Powers’s plane is shot down by Soviet rocketry. Why a flight on that date? Was it a provocation? Did they perhaps intended that the Soviets lay down – knowing and valuable information about their flight- parameters in a vain attempt to have some superiority in the negotiations initiated?
What became clear that a few months after the downing of the plane, Oswald returned to the US consulate in Moscow, which had previously broken his American passport, and requested repatriation, which was approved including wife and daughter, and its expenses were paid by the US government.
Then his story will continue in the US, linked to the FBI, the CIA and anti – Soviet organizations, its location in Dallas, and finally connected to the Cuban counterrevolutionaries with whom will join in its claims -few weeks before the assassination of Kennedy-de travel to Cuba so that their relations with our country remain legalized, all documented activities in American official investigations.
As we know Oswald was assassinated on November 24, 1963 by Jack Ruby, a known gangster Texan, and thereby put an end, at least unofficially, to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. How many secrets Oswald knew that made him so dangerous?Perhaps it was a patsy, as he himself be known when questioned by police during the first hours after the crime?How many more years will have to wait for the US government to declassify all documents of the investigation they conducted the assassination?
Then on that bridge linking Berlin and the two sectors -soviético US-What was what was exchanged? A pilot for a colonel who had not betrayed anyone, not recognized charges against him and was sentenced to 37 years in prison? It seems unlikely. Perhaps what led to this exchange was the need to recover a potentially explosive witness, who could learn important information about the spy Lee Harvey Oswald a year before the assassination.
Finally say that Colonel Vilyam Guénrijovich Fischer, alias Rudolf Abel, was awarded the Order Red Flag in their homeland and died among his people in 1971. Undoubtedly one of the heroes of the Cold War, who allowed his quiet and modest work provide invaluable materials USSR on defense and offensive capability of the United States of that time.